The Optics Laboratory
Group of Hans Hallen, Physics Department, North Carolina State University
Physical Optics
Course Objectives:

To develop a physical understanding of the lightmatter
interaction.

To develop skills and insights for calculation of light
propagation in all environments.

To become familiar with terminology, tricks and practice
of optical instrument design.

To understand the principles behind and current practice
of several photonics systems.

To be a knowledgeable user of light, and be able to
explain what you see.
Texts: The course will follow:
Optics, 4th ed. by Eugene Hecht
Other texts:

Introduction to Modern Optics by Fowles

Insight into Optics by Heavens and Ditchburn

Modern Optics by Guenther

Optics, 2nd ed. by Klein and Furtak

Principles of Optics by Born and Wolf

Handbook of Optics by the Optical Society of
America (4 thick volume Set)

Opticks by Newton

Quantum Electronics by Yariv

Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small particles
by Bohren and Huffman

Classical Electromagnetic Radiation by Marion
and Heald
Overview:
The course will provide a thorough coverage of physical optics, starting from Maxwell's equations. Real world applications or current state of the art practices will be used as examples and explored in the homework. After a short introduction, which stresses the E&M basis and prepares for later discussions of multilayer thin film interference, crystal optics and nonlinear optics, we will develop the theory of a general ray tracing algorithm similar to that used in commercial products. Its simplification will result in the matrix methods of paraxial optics and optical instruments. A discussion of apertures, stops, vignetting, and aberrations will supplement our optical instruments examples with design and performance issues. Real crystals are asymmetric. This has significant implications to light propagation. The fundamental physics will be explored to elucidate the observations. A study of several common twobeam interferometers and their applications will follow. Multiple beam interference will lead to the Fabry Perot interferometer and thin film interference. A rigorous treatment of thin film multilayers with examples for antireflection coatings, wavelength selective mirrors, and color separation should be expected. Limitations to their use will be given. Diffraction will be studied as a method to calculate the field from a known source. Several approximation schemes will be used, including that which leads to Fourier optics. A laser cavity example will yield the Gaussian beam and its propagation properties. We will then study Gaussian optics and the other aspects of lasers. Other topics include scattering, spectroscopy, remote sensing, holography and be reviewed before we delve into nonlinear optics. Second harmonic generation and other nonlinear techniques as time permits. Depending upon the interests of the particular class, the amount of time spent in each area can be altered or other topics covered (let me know).
Course outline (section in Hechtâ€™s book):
0. Introduction (3.6)
0_Introduction.pdf
1a_vectorDiffCalc.pdf
1b_coordinates.pdf
1c_Green_Delta_fncs.pdf
1. Maxwell Equations and Light Prop (23)
1_Maxwell1.pdf
1_Maxwell2.pdf
1_Maxwell3.pdf
2. Dipoles and Radiation (3.4)
2_Radiation1.pdf
2a_HertzVectors.pdf
3. Materials & Index
3_Dielectric1.pdf
3_Dielectric2.pdf
3_Dielectric3.pdf
4. Scattering (3)
4_Scattering1.pdf
4_Scattering2.pdf
4_Scattering3.pdf
4_Scattering4.pdf
4a_MieScatt.pdf
5. Reflection & Surface Interaction (34)
5_Reflection1.pdf
5_Reflection2.pdf
5_Reflection3.pdf
5_Reflection4.pdf
5_Reflection5.pdf
6. Geometrical & fiber Optics Intro (5.15.6,8)
6_Geometric1.pdf
6_Geometric2.pdf
6_Geometric3.pdf
6a_Test1Review.pdf
7. Vector Ray Trace
7_RayTrace1.pdf
7_RayTrace2.pdf
8. Matrix Methods (6)
8_MatrixMethods1.pdf
8_MatrixMethods2.pdf
8_MatrixMethods3.pdf
8_MatrixMethods4.pdf
9. Optical Instruments & Related (5.3, 5.7)
9_OptInstruments1.pdf
9_OptInstruments2.pdf
9_OptInstruments3.pdf
10. Abberations and What to do (6.3)
10_Aberrations1.pdf
10_Aberrations2.pdf
11. Polarization, Crystals (8)
11_Polarization1.pdf
11_Polarization2.pdf
11_Polarization3.pdf
12. Interference, Multilayers, Coherence(9,12)
12_Interference1.pdf
12_Interference2.pdf
12_Interference3.pdf
12_Interference4.pdf
13. Diffraction and Gausssian Beams (10,11)
13_Diffraction1.pdf
13_Diffraction2.pdf
13_Diffraction3.pdf
13_Diffraction4.pdf
13_Diffraction5.pdf
14. Lasers Introduction (13.1)
14_Lasers.pdf
15. Spectroscopy
15_Spectroscopy.pdf
16. Holography (13.3)
16_Holography.pdf
17. Nonlinear Optics (13.4)
17_Nonlinear.pdf
18. Wrap up
18_WhatWeDid.pdf
19. Other
vision, color, fluorescence, NSOM, detectors, Lidar, optical computing, optical signal processing, modelocked lasers, optical tweezers, optical cooling, microscopy techniques, medical optics. Topics depend upon class interests, suggestions welcome.
20. Student Presentations